Saturday, November 28, 2015
Friday, November 27, 2015
By Nick Catenacci and Melody TorresInfluence of Greek and Indian Mathematics on Muslim Scholars
Greek and Indian Mathematics
Change Over Time of the Spread of Knowledge
Many books were written by the Greeks and the Indians, laying down basic rules, theorems, and so forth that would prove to be the foundations of Muslim mathematical rules. Among these Greek and Indian mathematical works is the Greek Euclid's "Elements," and--while not a book, it is equally important--is the astrolabe. Originally Greek, it relied on astronomy and mathematics so that a sailor could determine his position while in transit. Muslims scholars adopted this invention, and even made it more mathematically accurate, adding circles indicating azimuths, allowing for more accurate locations to be estimated, and for the Muslims to still be able to pray in the direction of Mecca while in transit.
Islamic scholars, who possessed a passion of gaining knowledge, imported books from Greece and India, whose subjects covered a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy and, especially, mathematics. To house these manuscripts, the Muslims created the House of Wisdom, which housed many Greek and Sanskrit manuscripts, including mathematical books. Here, the works were translated into Arabic, and as Muslims learned more and more from these works, their mathematics took on a very Greek approach, such as Euclid's style of forming and proving. This collection of Greek and Indian mathematical works is a huge source of the influence that Greek and Indian mathematics had on Muslim scholars--especially in the conceptualization of new forms of mathematics.
Collecting the Knowledge
The formation of Arabic mathematics from Greek and Indian mathematical ideas created and led to many fundamental laws of modern-day mathematics. For example:
Abu Ja'far ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book called "Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" on arithmetic. This work used Hindu-Arabic numerals. This book introduced many fundamental mathematical terms, such as algorism--the process of computing with Hindu-Arabic numbers, which led to the modern term "Algorithm"--and probably one of the most essential fields of mathematics: al jabr, translated today as Algebra.
Formation of Knowledge
In his book, "Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" the famed Arabic mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, using an algorithm of Hindu-Arabic numerals, first introduced the concept of "Al Jabr," or as we know it today, Algebra. While it is taken for granted today, this specific field of mathematics led to further advancements in mathematics, such as later developments in Calculus. In Al-Khwarizmi's book, there was introduced a math in which one could mathematically find "variables" in equations--up to five. In modern day schools, this forms the very basis of high school and college mathematics education. So, while as indirect as it is, Greek and Indian mathematics, through its influence on Muslim scholars, caused the development of what is probably the most essential mathematics field known to the modern world
Al Jabr, A.K.A. Algebra
Greek and Indian mathematics affected Muslim scholars all over the Islamic Empire, revolutionizing how scholars then--and now--look at mathematics. This influence was amplified through the use of the trading routes throughout Afro-Eurasia, specifically the Silk Roads. Through this was this new type of mathematics allowed to spread to and from scholars of all nationalities. While originally mostly confined to Greece and India, and later the Islamic Empire, the new type of mathematics later spread all throughout Afro-Eurasia by way of the Silk Roads; since the Silk Roads was mainly composed of indirect trade--meaning that the countries/regions on the far sides of it rarely, if ever, came into direct contact--and that trade between many nations required the goods and ideas to pass through many stations and areas, this new hybrid of mathematics spread quickly to many areas and nationalities of people.
The Influence of Knowledge
As well as influencing the creation of Algebra, Indian mathematics also influenced Arabic numerals, especially the most crucial number in the Arabic--and even the modern--number system: zero. The ancient Greeks, while they excelled in mathematics, did not include the value zero in their number system, while the Indians did, and through Indian influence, so did the Muslims. The value zero, adopted from the Indians, allowed them to make much more precise calculations than the Greeks.
Ninth Century Parchment Manuscript
Manuscript of the "Compendious Book on Calculation by Completing and Balancing
Tuesday, November 24, 2015
watch this how arabs learn greek music..
Arabs translated and developed Greek texts and works of music and mastered the musical theory of the music of ancient Greece (i.e. Systema ametabolon, enharmonium, chromatikon, diatonon).
see 4BC-2AD Greek Art and 15AD arab art...arab people still draw far less quality after 1400 later eventhough they were trying to copy greek art in byzantine period...
I am gonna give you and teach you basic and hidden history of greece lesson about the most important and the greatest greek culture and civillization from now on... like to many others who heared weird fabrication and bashing about greek civillization...Is great euclides and herophilos fabrication to you?!? who fabricated those?!? why do whole world learn about them...it's right that greek history has been fabricated by barbarian germanic scholars....American historians are the cultureless barbarian that you are talking about and actually greek history that you learn in school and group altogether with other barbarian europeans, when greece had nothing to do with them and they were just unknown exotic looking blond barbarians to greeks who had black hair black eyes, is fake fabricated greek history...you also don't learn at school arabs and north africans now listen to greek music and greek foods because of fabrication of germanic scholar like the american scholar you mentioned to make greek civillization sound like one of their kind...
also middle east influence on greece in primitive era is also fabrication...
also phoenicians gave alphabet to greek is also fabrication of germanic european scholar...phoenicians were the descendants of greeks and pelasgoi greeks gave phoenicians their alphabet....watch this video how phoenicians are the descedants of greeks while watching enjoying the soulful greatest greek music that you mongolians lack... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u75DPSNUuIc
also the hidden history is that north africans and arabs are the descendants of pelasgoi greeks and ionian greeks...also cananeets are descendants of greeks...jews are descendants of philistines(palestinians), which is one of greek tribe...
also ainu in japan are the descedants of greeksearly egypt was built by greeks also...but fabrication of greek history was hiding some of these facts and some of them are made known to public but not learned in school...
these are the real history of the greatest civillization greece that many people now try to bash and brainwashed with negativity because of fabrication of those barbarian germanic american scholar you talk about...how dare barbarian american scholar try to write greek history when he is barbarian like asian nomad chinese...
Monday, November 23, 2015
The writer also said that Vietnam's invasion was "the most profound and true humanitarian act". The writer forgot that Vietnam was the one who created the KR, helped KR came to power in 1975 and then aided and abetted the KR in the killing of millions of Khmer life through Viet tricks. Vietnam did not come to save Khmer life, but invaded to annex more Khmer lands and kill more Khmer life like the K5 Plan. In fact, there are many claims and statistics pointing out that many more Khmers died or were killed after the Viet invasion in 1979.
The writer also accused overseas Khmers for inventing the story of Viet encroachments. No one will believe this claim because people can see with their own eyes that Vietnam are encroaching Khmer territory everyday and that Khmer farmers living along the border are crying everyday because Vietnamese soldiers had encroached on their lands. Does this writer think that these poor and unarmed Khmer farmers are the invaders of Vietnamese territory?
Regarding Champa and Kampuchea Krom, well, it is history but don't claim that they were Viet territory and the Chams and the Khmer Krom were invaders, right?
I believe that Cambodia and Vietnam should be friends, but do you think that friends won't invade or encroach on each other's land, right? I believe that we Khmers can't take back Kampuchea Krom, but we must never allow Vietnam to continue to encroach or chip away our territory on a daily basis. If you think that I have made up the story of Viet encroachments, then you just ask the farmers living along the border and they can tell you that they lost their land everyday.
History should be told the way it had happened, not twisted and turned.
Saturday, November 21, 2015
Thursday, November 19, 2015
Greek keys - origins
Who used Greek keys?The Greek key pattern has been used throughout history and in many places. Since it is a simple geometric pattern, it isn't surprising that so many people have used it. The ancient Greeks certainly used it, as carvings on their temples, and on their pottery. You can see a simple Greek key on the head band of the famous Charioteer statue found at Delphi (see left). The Romans liked the pattern as well, using it in their mosaics. However, it's used elsewhere in the world. The Dongson (or Dong Son) culture, which was centered around the Tonkin gulf in present-day Vietnam used Greek key ornamentation. It has also been used by Hopi people in North America.
An older patternThis tattoo was found on the hand of a woman, found mummified in the Gobi desert, who lived about 3000 years ago. The spirals going both ways looks like a Greek key. However, a Greek key has a double spiral, which not only winds to the centre, but also winds out again as well. These are simple spirals. Also Greek keys tend to connect from one pattern to the next, and these are just simple repetitions. However, the flow of the patterns feels like a Greek key, and I wonder if this is a forerunner of the real Greek key pattern.
This pattern is on Flikr here and there are photos of the original mummy here. Thanks to Tim for bringing it to my notice!
What do Greek keys mean?Various claims have been made for what a Greek key means. There may be a connection with the labyrinth where Theseus fought the Minotaur. A Greek bowl in the British museum shows Theseus dragging the Minotaur from the labyrinth, which is indicated by a Greek key frieze. You can make a Cretan or classical maze using a Greek key (see right), and many mazes have Greek keys embedded in a design, especially Roman mazes.
Other suggested meanings are stylised waves, snakes, symbolizing the bonds of love, friendship and devotion, eternal life, the four cardinal points, the meander of life, creative energy, the four seasons, etc. Take your pick! I prefer the waves. There are curved forms of Greek keys which look very like seawaves. This pattern is on the shield of Philip, father of Alexander the Great. The shield also has a more conventional Greek key pattern. This website only describes the square forms.
A modern Greek Key
|The Greek Key topology is a kind of structure of a protein. The strands of the protein is like a single line, but connected together like a Greek Key. There are some examples on the left.|
Saturday, November 14, 2015
Tuesday, November 10, 2015
In truth, it's not possible to count exactly how many words there are in any language because (this seems crazy, but it's true) there's no universal definition of "word". But no language has more than about 400,000 words, and the Greek language, sorry to say, has somewhere in the region of 100,000 to 200,000. English probably has slightly more, about 250,000.
A typical English dictionary lists about 80,000 words, and about 5% of those -- 4,000 -- are borrowed from Greek. If we extrapolate from that, we can say that English has 250,000 words, of which about 12,500 come from Greek.
But it doesn't really matter very much. Most people only know about 20,000 to 50,000 words, and for most everyday conversations only use a few thousand. The number of words in a language doesn't tell you anything about how good the language is: what counts is how easy it is to use those words to express what you want to say.
Sunday, November 8, 2015
+omnipotentum He should also be penalised for so often exceeding the serve time limits in matches, but the umpires do nothing- Nadal insisted that one umpire who acted be barred from his matches. Shameful! And yes, he's been a cheat for most of his career.
Tuesday, November 3, 2015