Saturday, March 26, 2016

pathetic boring loser arrogant nadal complain about tennis rule and technology again

Miami (AFP) - Rafael Nadal issued a warning to tennis leaders Friday that the sport faces future troubles if equipment evolution makes speed and power dominant over skill and tactics.

On the eve of his opening match at the ATP and WTA Miami Open, the 14-time Grand Slam singles champion said rule changes are needed to allow for taller and stronger players using modern racquet technology to make quick work of points and matches.
"The sport in general needs to improve in all aspects," Nadal said. "The players today are taller than before. The racquets hit the ball harder than before. Same time, it's true that nothing changed in our sport in terms of rules, how high is the net, everything.
"People get emotional when the points are intense, long. If every time we make that happen less often, it's obvious our sport can be in trouble for the future."
The 29-year-old Spanish left-hander, whose 67 career titles include nine on the red clay at Roland Garros, said tennis must adapt for future generations to enjoy it as much as past ones have.
"Tennis has been tremendously successful for a long time. The sport is healthy. But it's obvious at the same time we need to move, to predict the future," Nadal said.

"I'm not talking for my generation but for the next generation. The people like the drama, the rallies. I don't remember amazing matches that was only one serve and one shot.
"The matches that people remember most are matches that are slow matches with unbelievable points and the applause of the people or the emotions of the people are not only with one serve and one shot."
- Star power needed as well -
Nadal said it's important for tennis to develop stars and rivalries, such as he has enjoyed with once-dominant Roger Federer and Novak Djokovic, whose 11 career Grand Slam titles include four of the past five contested.
"In my opinion, it's not good if win a tournament every week a different player. People arrive at the tournament and nobody knows who are the favorites," Nadal said.
"It's difficult because the people need to support one player, so you need the stars. To create the stars you need players that have been there for a long time.
"At the same time it's good to have a combination of styles, different players that fight for the important things and one or another can win. That has happened the last 10 or 12 years.
"It's obvious now it's better for Novak. For last year and a half, two years, one is dominating. Maybe too much. But he deserves."
Nadal, who has struggled with knee injuries for years, went without a Grand Slam title last year for the first time since 2004 but is not looking toward the end just yet.
"I'm happy doing what I'm doing. I enjoy playing my sport," he said. "It's about love for the game, about passion for what I'm doing and I'm going to be here until I'm unhappy doing what I'm doing."
Nadal would like to do a little better at Miami, where he has lost all four finals he has reached -- in 2005 to Federer, 2008 to Nikolay Davydenko and in 2011 and 2014 to Djokovic.
"I think I played well in my career here. Four finals. Another semi-final. So was a positive tournament for me. Only negative thing is I finally never win it," Nadal said.

aaditya 15 hours ago
3 ๐Ÿ‘Ž
6 ๐Ÿ‘

Nadull = whinging whining loser. He has a problem with everything. With umpires, with ball kids, with fast surfaces, fast racquets, color of the clay, ATP schedules, drug testing during off season, he is such a pathetic drama queen he has an issue with everything

Thursday, March 24, 2016

byzantine music is the continuation of ancient greek music

+William Pagan       ""Greek and foreign historians agree that the ecclesiastical tones and in general the whole system of Byzantine music is closely related to the ancient Greek system.[2] It remains the oldest genre of extant music, of which the manner of performance and (with increasing accuracy from the 5th century onwards) the names of the composers, and sometimes the particulars of each musical work's circumstances,"""

Tuesday, March 22, 2016

turks stole greek cultures and claim it as their own comment

#128 Mar 1, 2014
First of all, it is called "tolma."
Changing pronounciation of ancient food names does not make it turkish.-_____-
Tolma is an ancient Armenian food. The name is derived from "toli" and "ma" together meaning "wrapped meat" in old Armenian.
Just like everything, turks steal Armenian and Greek culture, and claim it as theirs. For example, in turkey, over 12,000 village and city names have been changed from their original names. For example, "Akh Tamar" (meaning Oh, Tamar [an Armenian female name]) is now changed to "Agdamar" in turkey.
For Armenians, it's quite funny how pathetic turkey is. Everything they show tourists as their "culture" is just everything they have stolen from the Greeks and Armenians. So, in a way, it is their culture because their culture is being thieves.

Monday, March 21, 2016

Northern Chinese are often brachycephalic (skulls "short" in profile), whereas Southern Chinese are often dolichocephalic ("long" in profile)

Generally, Northern Chinese look more NE Asian (Mongol, Korean, Japanese, Tibetan, etc.), whereas Southern Chinese look more SE Asian (Vietnamese, Thai, Filipino, Malay, etc.) Southern Chinese are comparatively genetically closer to Mainland SE Asians due to intermarriage and assimilation between Han migrants and the native peoples of Central/Southern China, Taiwan, and SE Asia. Northern Chinese are comparatively genetically closer to North Asians and Central Asians due to historic invasions of nomadic peoples from the steppes and recent migration of Han Chinese from Northern China to frontier regions such as Dongbei and Xinjiang where intermarriage with the indigenous peoples has also occurerd.
However, it should be noted that there is a significant amount of phenotypic variation among all population levels of Han Chinese, and that not all Chinese people can be categorized as having a distinctly stereotypical "Northern/NE Asian" or "Southern/SE Asian" look.
Head shape: Northern Chinese are often brachycephalic (skulls "short" in profile), whereas Southern Chinese are often dolichocephalic ("long" in profile)
Eye shape: Northern Chinese tend to have single eyelids (slits), whereas Southern Chinese tend to have double eyelids ("big eyes").
ex. This man's right eye is single-eyelid, but his left eye is double.
Skin tone: Although Southern Chinese are stereotyped as darker/more tan, it isn't a trait exclusive to Southern Chinese. It would be more accurate to say that North and South Chinese tend to be different shades of white/yellow/brown.
Other observations: Southern Chinese have a more compact facial structure- smaller chins/jaws, shorter faces, larger foreheads, deeper eye sockets, wider noses/mouths- than North Chinese, who tend to have wider faces, flatter foreheads, high noses, and narrow/thin lips.
For more concise opinions, the following links may be helpful:
Below are several examples of what Northern and Southern Chinese look like.
Examples of Northern Chinese
Xi Jinping, Current President of China
Zhang Ziyi, Chinese actress
Liu Xiang, Chinese athlete
Han Chinese from Manchuria (Dongbei)
Kung Te-cheng, 77th-generation descendant of Confucius
Yang Liwei, Chinese astronaut
People in Xi'an, China
Victoria Song, Chinese member of K-pop girl group f(x)
Wen Jiabao, previous Premier of China
Examples of Southern Chinese
Sichuanese businessmen
Jay Chou, Taiwanese musician
Jerry Yang, co-founder of Yahoo
Lee Kuan Yew, Founding Father of Singapore
Ma Ying-jeou, former President of Taiwan
A young Chairman Mao
Jeremy Lin, Chinese/Taiwanese-American basketball player
Raymond Lam, Cantopop singer
Shing-tung Yau, mathematician
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Michelle Kwan, Chinese-American figure skater
Donnie Yen, Hong Kong actor
Gerald Ko, Chinese-American singer-songwriter/pharmacist
Taiwanese model
A Jiangxiese man
Guangxi schoolchildren

arabs/moors use musical scales, which is invented by pytagoras, and call it maqam

Edward J Hines' Theory Joining Turkish, Arabic and Western Modes

The classical music traditions of Turkish, Arabic and Western music are all based on the same musical theories of scale building credited to the ancient Greek Pythagoras.Over the centuries the three traditions followed a separate path of development, each of which is now recognized as a form of high art, but each with a distinct musical 'dialect.'

By the time of J.S. Bach, Western classical music had developed into a system of tuning known as equal temperament, where the musical octave is divided into 12 equally spaced half-tones. These tones are easily visible on any piano or fretted guitar. Equal temperament enables Western composers to create works using complex harmonies and polyphony.

Arabic classical music went through an important period of early development during the 9th through the 12th centuries when the Arabs ruled large parts of the Middle East, North Africa and southern Europe. Arabic scholars made significant contributions in studying and interpreting the works of the ancient Greeks; the Arabic system of modes known as maqamat came out of these early studies. In Arabic maqamat, the octave is divided into 24 equally spaced quarter-tones. Classical Arabic composers show skill in the development of these quarter-tones not through harmony or polyphony (as in the West), but through melody. To Western ears trained in 12 tone equal temperament, these quarter-tones can sound odd at first and are sometimes referred to as micro-tones.

While Turkish classical music went through a parallel period of early development with the Arabs, the high point in the development of the Turkish classical style is during the Ottoman Empire period from the 15th through the 20th centuries. In Turkish makams, the octave is not divided equally, but proportionally using whole-tones, half-tones, quarter-tones and even smaller tones. In theory, there are 24 tones in the Turkish octave, however in practice there are probably 31 and perhaps more. Like Arabic composers, Turkish classical composers show skill in the melodic development of makams through melody. Turkish makams closely reflect Pythagorean thinking in the use of proportional tuning. The eighth-tone is equal to 1 Pythagorean Comma (approximately 23 cents), which plays a crucial role in micro-tonal pitch development within any mode. The Yeni Makam Series of composer Edward J. Hines is a series of chamber works which synthesize Western compositional technique with the ancient theory of both Turkish makams and Arabic maqamat. To accomplish this objective, in Yeni Makam the whole tone (200 cents) is divided into half tones (100 cents) and quarter-tones (50 cents). The quarter-tone is then divided again, this time into eighth-tones (25 cents). The eighth-tone is only a 2 cent difference from an authentic Pythagorean comma (23 cents) which is imperceptible to the ear. In this way, a single musical composition can explore whole-tones, half-tones, quarter-tones and eight-tones which are now common to all three musical traditions.

Examples of Turkish Makams as Notated in the
Yeni Makam Series of Composer Edward J Hines

note: the accidental signs of the yeni makam series are innovations and modifications of current modal practice.

1. Scale Basics: Scales based on Pythagorean principles are a series of whole-tones and half-tones which progress up and down. In the West, the familiar Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol-La-Ti-Do describes a complete scale (major) where the most important note Do, the tonic, begins and ends the scale. The next most important note is called the dominant and is the fifth note of the scale (Sol). 2. Turkish Accidentals: In Turkish classical music, whole-tones and half-tones are approximately the same size as Western whole-tones and half-tones, and function the same way within the scale. However, the Pythagorean comma (approximately one-eighth tone) plays a critical role as it is used to augment or diminish whole-tones (creating 'smaller' and 'larger' whole-tones) as well as half-tones. Pitches can also be adjusted by more than one comma, resulting in quarter-tones and even three-eighths tones:
Note: There are discrepancies in Turkish classical music literature between written notes and actual sound. For example, the accidental for the eighth-tone is also used for the quarter-tone. However, a performer who is trained in the makams of Turkish classical music will understand which mode (by name) is being performed and will play the correct pitch. In order to demonstrate the correlation between Western, Turkish and Arabic scales and to replicate actual performance practice, three of the accidentals in the above example are innovations.

3. Turkish Tetrachords: Following the example of the ancient Greeks, Turkish makams are the combination of two four-note groupings called tetrachords. Through the use of accidentals, a series of tetrachords, each with a different characteristic (and name) can be created. Unlike the West, the dominant (D) will sometimes be located within the tetrachord itself. The following examples are the basic tetrachords (and pentachords) of Turkish classical music:

4. Turkish Makams: By joining tetrachords and pentachords, complete scales and modes are created. There are thousands of musical examples of works written using hundreds of different makams in the literature of Turkish classical music. Makam names vary according to pitches used as well as general direction of the melodic flow. Thus makams are really rules of composition and not just scales. Here are just a few examples:
Note: Turkish folk music, while not as highly refined or theoretical as Turkish classical music, has many examples of songs written in different makams including Hicaz, Huseyni and Ussak.

5. Arabic Maqamat: Arabic maqamat are based on a 24 note octave which includes whole-tones, half-tones and quarter-tones. As in Turkish makams, Arabic maqamat have different names according to pitch and melodic direction. It is interesting to note that the Arabic Bayyati is like the Turkish Huseyni and Ussak (Bayati). Nahawand is the same as the Turkish Puselik and the Western minor scale. Ajam Ashiran is the same as the Turkish Cargah and the Western major scale. The Arabic Hijaz and Turkish Hicaz are very close in sound as are Kurd and Kurdi.

Note: In the Yeni Makam Series, the accidental for 1/4 tone-flat is the reversed form of the Arabic 1/4 tone-flat sign. This innovation is done in order to reconcile the different modal traditions of Turkish, Arabic and Western music.

๊ณ ๋Œ€ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ์Šค์˜ ์Œ์•…๊ด€

1. ๊ฐœ์š”[ํŽธ์ง‘]
๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ณ ๋Œ€ ์Œ์•…์ธ ๋ฉ”์†Œํฌํƒ€๋ฏธ์•„ ์Œ์•…, ์ด์ง‘ํŠธ ์Œ์•…, ์ด์Šค๋ผ์—˜ ์Œ์•…์€ ๋™๋ฐฉ, ํ˜น์€ ์˜ค๋ฆฌ์—”ํŠธ๋กœ ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ๋ฉฐ ์„œ์–‘ ์Œ์•…์— ๊ฐ„์ ‘์ ์ธ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ์ค€ ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ๋Š” ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ ๊ณ ๋Œ€ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ์Šค ์Œ์•…์€ ์„œ์–‘ ์Œ์•…์˜ ์ง์ ‘์ ์ธ ๋ชจ์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค.

2. ์Œ์•…์˜ ์–ด์›[ํŽธ์ง‘]

์Œ์•…์˜ ์–ด์›์€ ฮผฮฟฯ…ฯƒฮนฮบฮฎ๋ผ๋Š” ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ์Šค์–ด์—์„œ ๋‚˜์™”์œผ๋ฉฐ, ๋ผํ‹ด์–ด musica, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ํ˜„๋Œ€์˜ music ํ˜น์€ musik์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋‹จ์–ด๊ฐ€ ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค.

3. ์Œ์•…๊ณผ ์‹ ํ™”[ํŽธ์ง‘]

3.1. ์˜ค๋ฅดํŽ˜์šฐ์Šค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

3.2. ์•„ํด๋ก ๊ณผ ๋””์˜ค๋‹ˆ์†Œ์Šค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

3.2.1. ์•„ํด๋ก [ํŽธ์ง‘]

ํƒœ์–‘์˜ ์‹  ์•„ํด๋ก ์€ ์Œ์•…์„ ๊ด€์žฅํ•˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์ œ์šฐ์Šค์™€ ๋ฏ€๋„ค๋ชจ์‹œ๋„ค์˜ ์•„ํ™‰ ๋”ธ๋“ค ๋ฌด์‚ฌ์˜ ์ง€๋„์ž์ด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์•„ํด๋กœ๊ฐ€ ๊ด€์žฅํ•œ ์Œ์•…์€ ์ด์ง€์ ์ด๊ณ  ์ •์ ์ธ ์Œ์•…์ด๋ฉฐ, ๊ทธ๊ฐ€ ๋“ค๊ณ  ๋‹ค๋‹Œ ์•…๊ธฐ๋Š” ํ˜„์•…๊ธฐ์ด๋‹ค. ์•„ํด๋ก  ์ œ์ „์—์„œ ๊ทธ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์“ฐ์ด๋Š” ์•…๊ธฐ๋Š” ํ‚คํƒ€๋ผ์ด๋ฉฐ, ํ‚คํƒ€๋ผ๋กœ ๋ถ€๋ฅด๋Š” ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ํ‚คํƒ€๋กœ๋””๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ถ€๋ฅธ๋‹ค.

3.2.2. ๋””์˜ค๋‹ˆ์†Œ์Šค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

ํฌ๋„์ฃผ์˜ ์‹ ์ธ ๋””์˜ค๋‹ˆ์†Œ์Šค๊ฐ€ ๊ด€์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ์Œ์•…์€ ์ถค๊ณผ ์—ฐ๊ทน๊ณผ ๊นŠ์€ ๊ด€๋ จ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฐ€ ๊ด€์žฅํ•œ ์Œ์•…์€ ๊ด€๋Šฅ์ ์ด๊ณ  ๋„์ทจ์ ์ด๋ฉฐ ์ •์—ด์ ์ด๋‹ค. ๋””์˜ค๋‹ˆ์†Œ์Šค ์ œ์ „์—์„œ ์“ฐ์ด๋Š” ์•…๊ธฐ๋Š” ๊ด€์•…๊ธฐ์ธ ์•„์šธ๋กœ์Šค์ด๋ฉฐ, ์•„์šธ๋กœ์Šค๋กœ ๋ถ€๋ฅด๋Š” ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ์•„์šธ๋กœ๋””๋ผ๊ณ  ์นญํžŒ๋‹ค.

3.3. ๋ฌด์‚ฌ[ํŽธ์ง‘]

4. ๊ณ ๋Œ€ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ์Šค์˜ ์Œ์•…๊ด€[ํŽธ์ง‘]

4.1. ํ”ผํƒ€๊ณ ๋ผ์Šค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

4.1.1. ์ˆ˜๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์ดˆ๋กœ ํ•œ ์Œํ–ฅํ•™[ํŽธ์ง‘]

ํ”ผํƒ€๊ณ ๋ผ์Šค๋Š” ๋งŒ๋ฌผ์˜ ์›๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜๋กœ ์ธ์‹ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์Œ๋“ค์˜ ๊ด€๊ณ„์—๋„ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์งˆ์„œ๋ฅผ ์ ์šฉ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค. ์ˆ˜์  ๋น„์œจ๊ด€๊ณ„๋กœ ์Œ์ •์„ ๋ถ„์„ํ•˜์˜€์œผ๋ฉฐ, ํ˜„์„ 1/2๋กœ ์ค„์˜€์„ ๋•Œ 8๋„, 2/3๋กœ ์ค„์˜€์„ ๋•Œ 5๋„, 3/4๋กœ ์ค„์˜€์„ ๋•Œ 4๋„์˜ ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋‚œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ์•Œ์•„๋ƒˆ๋‹ค.

4.1.2. ์ฒœ์ฒด์Œ์•…๋ก [ํŽธ์ง‘]

์ฒœ์ฒด, ์šฐ์ฃผ๋Š” ์กฐํ™”๋กญ๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์กŒ๋Š”๋ฐ ์กฐํ™”๋กœ์šด ๋ณ„๋“ค์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ด€๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ๋ฏธ์‹œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐ˜์˜๋œ ๊ฒƒ์ด ์Œ์•…์ด๋ผ๋Š” ์ด๋ก ์ด๋‹ค.

4.2. ํ”Œ๋ผํ†ค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

์Œ์•…์ด ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์„ฑํ’ˆ, ๋„๋•, ์œค๋ฆฌ์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์นœ๋‹ค๋Š” ์—ํ† ์Šค๋ก ์„ ์ง€์ง€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์กฐํ™”๋กœ์šด ์„ ๋ฒ•์ธ ๋„๋ฆฌ์•ˆ ์„ ๋ฒ•๊ณผ ํ”„๋ฆฌ์ง€์•ˆ ์„ ๋ฒ•์„ ๊ถŒ์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด ์Šฌํ”ˆ ๋Š๋‚Œ์„ ์ฃผ๋Š” ๋ฆฌ๋””์•ˆ ์„ ๋ฒ•๊ณผ ๋ฏน์†Œ๋ฆฌ๋””์•ˆ ์„ ๋ฒ•์€ ๋ฐฐ์ œ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค. ํ˜„๋Œ€์—๋„ ๋…ธ๋ž˜์—๋‹ค๊ฐ€ 19๊ธˆ ๋”ฑ์ง€๋ฅผ ๊ฑธ์ง€๋งŒ ์ด๋Š” ๊ฐ€์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์ค€์œผ๋กœ ๋งค๊ธด ๊ฒƒ์ด๊ณ  ํ”Œ๋ผํ†ค์€ ์„ ์œจ์„ ๊ธฐ์ค€์œผ๋กœ 19๊ธˆ ๋”ฑ์ง€๋ฅผ ๋งค๊ธด ๊ผด.

4.3. ์•„๋ฆฌ์Šคํ† ํ…”๋ ˆ์Šค[ํŽธ์ง‘]

ํ”Œ๋ผํ†ค์˜ ์—ํ† ์Šค๋ก ์„ ๊ณ„์Šนํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ๋„ ์Œ์•…์˜ ์˜ˆ์ˆ ์„ฑ์„ ํญ๋„“๊ฒŒ ์ธ์ •ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ต์œก์„ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ๋„๋ฆฌ์•ˆ ์„ ๋ฒ•๋งŒ์„ ํ—ˆ์šฉํ•˜์˜€์ง€๋งŒ ๊ฐ์ •๋ถ„์ถœ์„ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์„ ๋ฒ•์˜ ์Œ์•…์„ ๋“ฃ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ฃผ์žฅํ•จ์œผ๋กœ์จ ํƒˆ์ถœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์ œ์‹œํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค.

Arabs translated and developed Greek texts and works of music author

Arabs translated and developed Greek texts and works of music and mastered the musical theory of the music of ancient Greece (i.e. Systema ametabolon, enharmonium, chromatikon, diatonon).[1]

 [1]Habib Hassan Touma - Review of Das arabische Tonsystem im Mittelalter by Liberty Manik. doi:10.2307/

Habib Hassan Touma

Habib Hassan Touma Arabic: ุญุจูŠุจ ุญุณู† ุชูˆู…ุง‎) (December 12, 1934 – 1998) was a Palestinian composer and ethnomusicologist. He authored a number of books, essays and articles on Arabic music.
He was also a book review editor at the International Institute for Traditional Music in Berlin, Germany.


  • The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. (1996). ISBN 0-931340-88-8
  • Maqam Bayati, Israel Music Publications.
  • Rhapsodie Orientale, Israel Music Publications.
  • Study #1 (For Flute), Israel Music Publications.
  • Study #2 "Combinations" (For Flute), Israel Music Publications.
  • The Maqam Phenomenon: An Improvisational Technique in the Music of the Middle East (1971)
  • "Taqsim" for solo piano, Israel Music Publications
  • "Suite Arabe" for solo piano, Israel Music Publications

See also[edit]

Sunday, March 20, 2016

turks are greek native in anatolia

Your question is wrong, You should be asking why so called European nations such as ,Portuguese, Italians, Greeks, Maltese, Cypriots are darker? Bulgarians have a very complex ethnic heritage, First being proto bulgars, slavic, thracian (probably greek with some balkan influence) . Proto Bulgars are a tribe moved from the north of black sea to the current region of Bulgaria, It is debatable but proto bulgars are said to have an Indo-Aryan heritage with some old proto turkic influence with their military. And more for the latest historic influences Bulgarians are not dark because of the Ottoman Turks. If you think that bulgarians are dark because of the Turks, then rest of the Balkans would be the same, but it is not. In Bulgaria you can see very dark skinned person, also very light skinned, you can see whiter Bulgarian Turk than Bulgarian or lighter Bulgarian than a Bulgarian Turk. Roma population is similar to Indians so they are generally darker than Europeans or Bulgarians. Do not forget that Ottoman Turks were never actually same proto Turks from Central Asia, most of the proto Turkic ethnicity was assimilated with the local Anatolian ethnicity being greeks,armenians,kurds,georgians and others like persian,arabs. So in that sense, Turks does not have that much effect on Bulgarians from the Ottoman times. Adding to your questions most of the mediterranean nations are more or less same, they have the same genetic influence from the past, in that regards if you think that greeks are lighter than Bulgarians, you might be wrong.

Saturday, March 19, 2016

turkish musical instrument kemence is copy of ancient greek musical instrument lyra

Cretan lyra

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Lyra crete - ฮ›ฯฯฮฑ
Various models of the Cretan Lyra at the Museum of Greek Traditional Instruments, Athens.
String instrument
Other namesCretan lyra/lira, Aegean lyra
Hornbostel–Sachs classification321.321-71
(Necked bowl lute sounded by a bow)
Developed10th century AD (est)
Related instruments
The Cretan lyra (Greek: ฮšฯฮทฯ„ฮนฮบฮฎ ฮปฯฯฮฑ) is a Greek pear-shaped, three-stringed bowed musical instrument, central to the traditional music of Crete and other islands in the Dodecanese and the Aegean Archipelago, in Greece. The Cretan lyra is considered as the most popular surviving form of the medieval Byzantine lyra, an ancestor of most European bowed instruments.


The Cretan lyra is closely related to the bowed Byzantine lyra, the ancestor of many European bowed instruments and equivalent to the rabฤb found in Islamic empires of that time (Baines Anthony, 1992). The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911), in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the lyra as a typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre) and the salandj (probably a bagpipe) (Margaret J. Kartomi, 1990).
The Byzantine lyra spread westward through Europe with uncertain evolution; a notable example is the Italian lira da braccio, a 15th-century bowed instrument and possibly the predecessor of the modern violin. Bowed instruments similar to the Cretan lyra and direct descendants of the Byzantine lyra have continued to be played in many post-Byzantine regions until the present day with small changes, for example the Gadulka in Bulgaria, the bowed Calabrian lira in Italy and the Classical Kemenche (Turkish: Armudรฎ kemenรงe, Greek: ฮ ฮฟฮปฮฏฯ„ฮนฮบฮท ฮปฯฯฮฑ) in Istanbul, Turkey.
With regard to the period of introduction of the bowed instrument in the island, there are four schools of thought:
  1. The Byzantine lyra was introduced after 961 AD, when the island was reconquered from Arabs by the Byzantine Empire under the command of Nikephoros Phokas. At that time, noble families from Constantinople were sent to settle on Crete to inject new life and replenish the Greek population, who introduced many Byzantine traditions from Constantinople.
  2. The lyra was introduced from the islands of the Dodecanese, and entered the island through the eastern town of Sitia (where it was most popular), which is the neighbor of Kassos and Karpathos; this must have happened by the 12th century.
  3. The lyra was gradually introduced into the island's traditions as a popular element of the Byzantine music and tradition, in a similar manner that lyra was introduced in other regions (e.g. the Lira da braccio and Calabrian lira in Italy and the Gadulka in Bulgaria).
  4. By the local tradition, the Cretan lyra has been spontaneous developed in the island of Crete some time before the year 961 AD and after the Byzantine invasion of Nikephoros Phokas it's been adopted by the Byzantine panspermia among other treasures from Crete, to Istanbul, and from there, spread east and west.
Over the centuries and especially during the island's Venetian era, the violin exerted its influence on the music of Crete both under the organological and musical aspect, bringing about profound changes in the instrument's repertory, tunning, organology, musical language and performance practice.


There are three major types of Cretan lyras:
  1. the lyraki (Greek: ฮปฯ…ฯฮฌฮบฮน), a small model of lyra, almost identical to the Byzantine lyra devoted only to the performance of dances (Anoyanakis, 1976)
  2. the vrontolyra (Greek: ฮฒฯฮฟฮฝฯ„ฯŒฮปฯ…ฯฮฑ), which is gives a very strong sound, ideal for accompaniment songs.
  3. the common lyra (Greek: ฮปฯฯฮฑ ฮบฮฟฮนฮฝฮฎ), popular in the island today; designed after the combination of lyraki with the violin.
The influence of the violin caused the transformation of many features of the old form of Cretan Lyra (lyraki) into the contemporary lyra, including its tuning, performance practice, and repertory. In 1920, the viololyra was developed in an effort of local instrument manufacturers to give the sound and the technical possibilities of the violin to the old Byzantine lyraki. Twenty years later a new combination of lyraki and violin gave birth to the common lyra. Other types include the four-stringed lyra.
In 1990, Ross Daly designed a new type of Cretan lyra which incorporates elements of lyraki, the Byzantine lyra and the Indian sarangi. The result was a lyra with three playing strings of 29 cm in length (the same as the standard Cretan lyra), and 18 sympathetic strings which resonate on Indian-styled jawari bridges (the number of sympathetic strings was later increased to 22).


Lyra has a body (kafka, or kafki) with a pear-shaped soundboard (kapaki), or one which is essentially oval in shape, with two small semi-circular soundholes. The body and neck are carved out of one piece of aged wood (minimum 10 years old). Traditionally the body's wood was sourced from trees growing in Crete such as walnut, mulberry and asfadamos, the local plane tree; today it is mostly imported.
The soundboard is also carved with a shallower arch and is usually made of straight-grained softwood; traditionally made of the aged wooden beams of buildings (katrani) and, ideally the 300-year-old wooden beams from Venetian ruins. In the past, the strings were made of animal bowels and the bow (doxari) of horse-tail hair. In the past, the bow's arc usually had a series of spherical bells, gerakokoudouna (hawk bells), to provide rhythmic accompaniment to the melody when the bow was moving. Today, most lyras are played with violin bows.
A method for the vibration analysis and characterization of the Cretan lyre top plates was reported recently.[1]


The old model of the Cretan lyra (also called lyraki ~ small lyra), is tuned 5-1-4. The performer plays the melody on the 1st and 3rd string, using the 2nd string as a drone (Magrini 1997), similarly to the Byzantine lyras from ca. 1190 AD, found in the excavations of Novgorod (Anthony Baines, 1992).
The contemporary lyra replaces the drone strings with three strings in succession (d-a-e'). The contemporary lyra modelled after Stagakis' design is tuned in fifths, and like the violin, it uses no drone string, and all strings may be fingered and used as melody strings.

In use[edit]

The Cretan lyra is still widely used in Crete (see Music of Crete), in some islands of the Dodecanese and the Aegean archipelago as well as in parts of northern Greece.


Noted Cretan Lyra performers include Andreas Rodinos, Thanassis Skordalos, Kostas Mountakis, Kareklas, Nikos Xilouris, Leonidas Klados, Ross Daly, Kelly Thoma, Zacharias Spyridakis, Paris Perysinakis, Dimitris Vakakis, Stelios Petrakis, Vassilis Skoulas and Psarantonis. Today in Rhodes, Yiannis Kladakis is known for reviving this type of lyra in the island. Georgia Dagaki is known for playing the instrument at the current shows of rock singer Eric Burdon.

turkish musical instrument kemenche copied from greek musical instrument lira

Byzantine lyra

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Byzantine Lyra
ฮ’ฯ…ฮถฮฑฮฝฯ„ฮนฮฝฮฎ ฮ›ฯฯฮฑ
Byzantine Lyra Museo Nazionale.jpg
Earliest known depiction of lyra in a Byzantine ivory casket (900 – 1100 AD). (Museo Nazionale, Florence)[1]
String instrument
Other namesByzantine lyra, lira, lลซrฤ, Rum Kemenรงe, medieval fiddle, pear-shaped rebec
Hornbostel–Sachs classification321.321–71
(Necked bowl lute sounded by a bow)
Developed9th century AD
Related instruments
The Byzantine lyra or lira (Greek: ฮปฯฯฮฑ) was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping the strings from the side with fingernails. Remains of two actual examples of Byzantine lyras from the Middle ages have been found in excavations at Novgorod;[2] one dated to 1190 AD.[3] The first known depiction of the instrument is on a Byzantine ivory casket (900–1100 AD), preserved in the Palazzo del Podesta in Florence (Museo Nazionale, Florence, Coll. Carrand, No.26).[1] Versions of the Byzantine lyra are still played throughout the former lands of the Byzantine Empire: Greece (Politiki lyra, lit. "lyra of the City" i.e. Constantinople), Crete (Cretan lyra), Albania, Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Croatia (Dalmatian Lijerica), Italy (Calabrian lira) and Turkey.


The first recorded reference to the bowed lyra was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911); in his lexicographical discussion of instruments he cited the lyra (lลซrฤ) as the typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre) and the salandj (probably a bagpipe).[4] The lyra spread widely via the Byzantine trade routes that linked the three continents; in the 11th and 12th centuries European writers use the terms fiddle and lira interchangeably when referring to bowed instruments.[5] In the meantime, the rabฤb, the bowed string instrument of the Arabic world, was introduced to Western Europe possibly through the Iberian Peninsula and both instruments spread widely throughout Europe giving birth to various European bowed instruments such as the medieval rebec, the Scandinavian and Icelandic talharpa. A notable example is the Italian lira da braccio,[5] a 15th-century bowed string instrument which is considered by many as the predecessor of the contemporary violin.[6]


From the organological point of view, the Byzantine lyra is in fact an instrument belonging to the family of bowed lutes; however, the designation lyra (Greek: ฮปฯฯฮฑ ~ lลซrฤ, English: lyre) constitute of a terminological survival relating to the performing method of an ancient Greek instrument. The use of the term lyra for a bowed instrument was first recorded in the 9th century, probably as an application of the term lyre of the stringed musical instrument of classical antiquity to the new bowed string instrument. The Byzantine lyra is sometimes informally called a medieval fiddle, or a pear-shaped rebec, or a kemanche, terms that may be used today to refer to a general category of similar stringed instruments played with a horsehair bow.


The Byzantine lyra had rear tuning pegs set in a flat peg similarly to the medieval fiddle and unlike the rabฤb and rebec. However, the strings were touched by the nails laterally and not pressed from above with the flesh of the finger such as in the violin. The lyra depicted on the Byzantine ivory casket of Museo Nazionale, Florence (900 – 1100 AD) has two strings and pear-shaped body with long and narrow neck. The soundboard is depicted without soundholes and as a distinct and attached piece, however this might be due to stylistic abstraction. The lyras of Novgorod (1190 AD) are closer morphologically to the present bowed lyras (see gallery): they were pear-shaped and 40 cm long; they had semi-circular soundholes and provision for three strings.[3] The middle string served as a drone while fingering the others by finger or fingernail alone, downwards or sidewards against the string, for there was no fingerboard to press them against: a method which gives the notes as clearly as the violin and remains normal in lyras both in Asia as well as on present bowed instruments in post-Byzantine regions such as the Cretan lyra.[3]

In use today[edit]

The lyra of the Byzantine empire survives in many post-Byzantine regions until the present day even closely to its archetype form. Examples are the Politiki lyra (i.e. lyra of the Polis, or City, referring to Constantinople) (Greek: ฯ€ฮฟฮปฮฏฯ„ฮนฮบฮท ฮปฯฯฮฑ) also known as the Classical Kemenche (Turkish: Klasik kemenรงe or Armudรฎ kemenรงe) from Constantinople, used in today's Turkey and Greece, the Cretan lyra (Greek: ฮบฯฮทฯ„ฮนฮบฮฎ ฮปฯฯฮฑ) and the one used in the Greek islands of the Dodecanese, the gadulka (Bulgarian: ะ“ัŠะดัƒะปะบะฐ) in Bulgaria, the gusle in Serbia and Montenegro, the Calabrian lira (Italian: lira Calabrese) in Italy, and the Pontic lyra (Greek: ฯ€ฮฟฮฝฯ„ฮนฮฑฮบฮฎ ฮปฯฯฮฑ; Turkish: Karadeniz kemenรงe) in the Pontic Greek communities, that existed (or still exist) around the shores of the Black Sea. The gudok, a historical Russian instrument that survived until the 19th century, is also a variant of the Byzantine lyra.
Similarly to the lyras found at Novgorod, the Cretan lyra, the Gadulka, the Calabrian Lira and the Greek lyras of Karpathos, Macedonia, Thrace and Mount Olympus are manufactured from a single wood block (monoblock), sculpted into a pear-shaped body. The slightly rounded body of the lyra is prolonged by a neck ending on the top in a block which is also pear-shaped or spherical. In that, are set the pegs facing and extending forward. The soundboard is also carved with a shallower arch and has two small semi-circular, D-shaped soundholes. The Cretan lyra is probably the most widely used surviving form of the Byzantine lyra, except that in Crete instrument-making has been influenced by that of the violin. Currently, numerous models tend to integrate the shape of the scroll, the finger board and other morphology of some secondary characteristics of the violin.
The modern variants of the lyra are tuned in various ways: LA–RE–SO (or a–d–g, i. e. by fifths) on the Cretan lyra; LA–RE–SO (or a–d–g, where SO [=g] is a perfect fourth higher than RE [=d] rather than a fifth lower) in Thrace and on Karpathos and the Dodecanese; LA–LA–MI (a–a–e, with the second LA [=a] an octave lower), in Drama; MI–SO–MI (e–g–e, i. e. a minor third and a major sixth) on the gadulka; LA–RE–LA (a–d–a, a fifth and a fourth) on the Classical Kemenche.[clarification needed]