It affects functionality of human endocrine system in general and anterior pituitary gland in particular which produces many hormones including somatotrophin (also known as human growth hormone, hGH). It stimulates production of somatomedin C (also known as insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1) by liver. Both of them influence positively bone and muscle growth. Any genetic anomalies affecting anterior pituitary gland may result in extremely tall or short human height. It also explains why tall parents are more likely to have tall children than average height parents, though research continues in this area.