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Locrian mode

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Locrian on C About this sound Play .
The Locrian mode is either a musical mode or simply a diatonic scale.

History[edit]

Locrian is the word used to describe the inhabitants of the ancient Greek regions of Locris.[1] Although the term occurs in several classical authors on music theory, including Cleonides (as an octave species) and Athenaeus (as an obsolete harmonia), there is no warrant for the modern usage of Locrian as equivalent to Glarean's Hyperaeolian mode, in either classical, Renaissance, or later phases of modal theory through the 18th century, or modern scholarship on ancient Greek musical theory and practice.[2] The name first came to be applied to modal chant theory after the 18th century,[3] when it was used to describe the mode newly numbered as mode 11, with final on B, ambitus from that note to the octave above, and with semitones therefore between the first and second, and fourth and fifth degrees. Its reciting tone (or tenor) is G, its mediant D, and it has two participants: E and F.[4] The final, as its name implies, is the tone on which the chant eventually settles, and corresponds to the tonic in tonal music. The reciting tone is the tone around which the melody principally centres,[5] the mediant is named from its position between the final and reciting tone, and the participant is an auxiliary note, generally adjacent to the mediant in authentic modes and, in the plagal forms, coincident with the reciting tone of the corresponding authentic mode.[6]

Modern Locrian[edit]

In modern practice, the Locrian may be considered to be a minor scale with the second and fifth scale degrees lowered a semitone. The Locrian mode may also be considered to be a scale beginning on the seventh scale degree of any Ionian, or major scale. The Locrian mode has the formula 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Its tonic chord is a diminished triad (Bdim in the Locrian mode of the diatonic scale corresponding to C major). This mode's diminished fifth and the Lydian mode's augmented fourth are the only modes to have a tritone above the tonic.

Examples[edit]

  • The B Locrian mode starts on B and contains the same notes as the C Major scale. (B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B)
  • The E Locrian mode starts on E and contains the same notes as the F Major scale. (E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E)
  • The G Locrian mode starts on G and contains the same notes as the A Major scale. (G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
  • The F Locrian mode starts on F and contains the same notes as the G Major scale. (F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F )
  • The G Locrian mode starts on G and contains the same notes as the A Major scale. (G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
  • The B Locrian mode starts on B and contains the same notes as the C Major scale. (B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B)

Locrian on B.

Overview[edit]

The Locrian mode is the only modern diatonic mode in which the tonic triad is a diminished chord, which is considered dissonant. This is because the interval between the root and fifth of the chord is a diminished fifth. For example, the tonic triad of B Locrian is made from the notes B, D, F. The root is B and the fifth is F. The diminished-fifth interval between them is the cause for the chord's dissonance.
The name "Locrian" is taken from music theory of ancient Greece. However, what is now called the Locrian mode was what the Greeks called the Diatonic Mixolydian tonos. The Greeks used the term "Locrian" as an alternative name for their "Hypodorian", or "Common" tonos, with a scale running from mese to nete hyperbolaion, which in its diatonic genus corresponds to the modern Aeolian mode.[7] In his reform of modal theory in the Dodecachordon (1547), Heinrich Glarean named this division of the octave "Hyperaeolian" and printed some musical examples (a three-part polyphonic example specially commissioned from his friend Sixtus Dietrich, and the Christe from a mass by Pierre de La Rue), though he did not accept Hyperaeolian as one of his twelve modes.[8] The usage of the term "Locrian" as equivalent to Glarean's Hyperaeolian or the ancient Greek (diatonic) Mixolydian, however, has no authority before the 19th century.[9]

Usage[edit]

There are brief passages in works by Rachmaninov (Prelude in B minor, op. 32, no. 10), Hindemith (Ludus Tonalis), and Sibelius (Symphony no. 4 in A minor, op. 63) that have been, or may be, regarded as in the Locrian mode.[10]
Debussy's Jeux has three extended passages in the Locrian mode.[11]
The theme of the second movement ("Turandot Scherzo") of Hindemith's Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber (1943) alternates sections in Mixolydian and Locrian modes, ending in Locrian.[12]
English folk musician John Kirkpatrick's song "Dust to Dust"[1] was written in the Locrian mode, backed by his concertina.[13] The Locrian mode is not at all traditional in English music, but was used by Kirkpatrick as a musical innovation.
Icelandic singer-songwriter Björk used the Locrian mode for the bass part of her 1995 hit "Army of Me".[14]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ "Locrian"Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Locrian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001); David Hiley, "Mode", The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0-19-866212-9 OCLC 59376677.
  3. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Locrian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001)
  4. Jump up^ W[illiam] S[myth] Rockstro, "Locrian Mode", A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (A.D. 1450–1880), by Eminent Writers, English and Foreign, vol. 2, edited by George Grove, D. C. L. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1880): 158.
  5. Jump up^ Charlotte Smith, A Manual of Sixteenth-Century Contrapuntal Style (Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1989): 14. ISBN 978-0-87413-327-1.
  6. Jump up^ W[illiam] S[myth] Rockstro "Modes, the Ecclesiastical", A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (A.D. 1450–1880), by Eminent Writers, English and Foreign, vol. 2, edited by George Grove, D. C. L., 340–43 (London: Macmillan and Co., 1880): 342.
  7. Jump up^ Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece, §1: Ancient; 6: Music Theory". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  8. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Hyperaeolian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan, 2001.
  9. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Locrian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  10. Jump up^ Vincent Persichetti, Twentieth Century Harmony (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1961): 42.
  11. Jump up^ Eduardo Larín, "'Waves' in Debussy's Jeux", Ex Tempore 12, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 2005).
  12. Jump up^ Gene Anderson, "The Triumph of Timelessness over Time in Hindemith's 'Turandot Scherzo' from Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber", College Music Symposium 36 (1996): 1–15. Citation on 3.
  13. Jump up^ Anon. no titleEnglish Dance and Song 62 [or possibly 63] (2000?) (Accessed 23 June 2012)[full citation needed]
  14. Jump up^ Allan F. Moore, Song Means: Analysing and Interpreting Recorded Popular Song Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series (Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2012): 169. ISBN 978-1-4094-2864-0 (cloth); ISBN 978-1-4094-3802-1 (pbk); ISBN 9781409428657 (ebook) (Accessed 24 June 2012).

Further reading[edit]

  • Bárdos, Lajos. 1976. "Egy 'szomorú' hangnem: Kodály zenéje és a lokrikum". Magyar zene: Zenetudományi folyóirat 17, no. 4 (December): 339–87.
  • Hewitt, Michael. 2013. Musical Scales of the World. The Note Tree. ISBN 978-0957547001.
  • Nichols, Roger, and Richard Langham Smith. 1989. Claude Debussy, Pelléas et Mélisande. Cambridge Opera Handbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31446-6
  • Rahn, Jay. 1978. "Constructs for Modality, ca. 1300–1550". Canadian Association of University Schools of Music Journal / Association Canadienne des Écoles Universitaires de Musique Journal, 8, no. 2 (Fall): 5–39.
  • Rowold, Helge. 1999. "'To achieve perfect clarity of expression, that is my aim': Zum Verhältnis von Tradition und Neuerung in Benjamin Brittens War Requiem". Die Musikforschung 52, no. 2 (April–June): 212–19.
  • Smith, Richard Langham. 1992. "Pelléas et Mélisande". The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 vols, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press; New York: Grove's Dictionaries of Music. ISBN 0-333-48552-1 (UK) ISBN 0-935859-92-6 (US)

External links[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locrian_mode

Aeolian mode

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Modern Aeolian mode on AAbout this sound Play 
The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale called the natural minor scale.

History[edit]

The word Aeolian, like the names for the other ancient Greek tonoi and harmoniai, is an ethnic designation: in this case, for the inhabitants of Aeolis (Αἰολίς)—the Aeolian Islands and adjacent coastal district of Asia Minor.[1] In the music theory of ancient Greece, it was an alternative name (used by some later writers, such as Cleonides) for what Aristoxenus called the Low Lydian tonos (in the sense of a particular overall pitching of the musical system—not a scale), nine semitones higher than the lowest "position of the voice", which was called Hypodorian.[2] In the mid-16th century, this name was given by Heinrich Glarean to his newly defined ninth mode, with the diatonic octave species of the natural notes extending one octave from A to A—corresponding to the modern natural minor scale.[3] Up until this time, chant theory recognized eight musical modes: the relative natural scales in D, E, F and G, each with their authentic and plagal counterparts, and with the option of B-flat instead of B-natural in several modes.[4]
In 1547 Heinrich Glarean published his Dodecachordon. His premise had as its central idea the existence of twelve diatonic modes rather than eight, including a separate pair of modes each on the finals A and C. Finals on these notes, as well as on B♮, had been recognized in chant theory at least since Hucbald in the early tenth century, but they were regarded as merely transpositions from the regular finals a fifth lower. In the eleventh century Guido d'Arezzo, in chapter 8 of his Micrologus, designated these transposed finals A, B♮ and C as "affinals", and later still the term "confinal" was used in the same way.[5] In 1525, Pietro Aaron was the first theorist to explain polyphonic modal usage in terms of the eightfold system, including these transpositions.[6] As late as 1581, Illuminato Aiguino da Brescia published the most elaborate theory defending the eightfold system for polyphonic music against Glarean's innovations, in which he regarded the traditional plainchant modes 1 and 2 (Dorian and Hypodorian) at the affinal position (that is, with their finals on A instead of D) as a composite of species from two modes, which he described as "mixed modes".[7] Glarean added Aeolian as the name of the new ninth mode: the relative natural mode in A with the perfect fifth as its dominant, reciting note or tenor. The tenth mode, the plagal version of the Aeolian mode, Glarean called Hypoaeolian ("under Aeolian"), based on the same relative scale, but with the minor third as its tenor, and having a melodic range from a perfect fourth below the tonic to a perfect fifth above it.
Although scholars for the past three centuries[weasel words] have regarded the modes added by Glarean as the basis of the minor/major division of classical European music, as homophonic music replaced Renaissance polyphony, this is an oversimplification. Even the key of A minor is as closely related to the old transposed modes 1 and 2 (Dorian and Hypodorian) with finals on A—as well as to mode 3 (Phrygian)—as it is to Glarean's Aeolian.[8]
Aeolian on C About this sound Play .
In modern usage, the Aeolian mode is the sixth mode of the major scale and has the formula 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. In C, this is C, D, E, F, G, A, B (three flats); in A, this is A, B, C, D, E, F, G (no flats or sharps).
From the point of view of its relative major key, the aeolian tonic chord is the submediant minor triad (vi). For example, if the Aeolian mode is used in its all-white-note pitch based on A, this would be an A-minor triad, which would be the submediant in the relative major key of C major.

Songs that use Aeolian mode[edit]

Aeolian mode as a scale is identical with the natural minor scale. Thus, it is ubiquitous in minor-key music. The following is a list of some examples that are distinguishable from ordinary minor tonality, which also uses the melodic minor scale and the harmonic minor scale as required.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ "Aeolian"Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membershiprequired.)
  2. Jump up^ Egert Pöhlmann, Olympia Psychopedis-Frangou, and Rudolf Maria Brandl, "Griechenland", Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik, second, newly compiled edition, edited by Ludwig Finscher, part 1 (Sachteil), vol. 3 (Eng–Hamb) (Kassel & New York: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart: Metzler, 1995), 1652, ISBN 978-3-7618-1101-6 (Bärenreiter); ISBN 3-7618-1101-2 (Bärenreiter); ISBN 978-3-476-41000-9 (Metzler); ISBN 3-476-41000-5 (Metzler); Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece, §I: Ancient", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001), 10:339. ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  3. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Aeolian (i)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, 29 volumes (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001), 1:[page needed]ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  4. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §II. Medieval Modal Theory, 3: 11th-Century Syntheses, (i) Italian Theory of Modal Functions, (b) Ambitus." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[page needed] (Example 5). ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  5. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §II. Medieval Modal Theory, 2. Carolingian Synthesis, 9th–10th Centuries, (i) The Boethian Double Octave and the Modes, (b) Tetrachordal Degrees and Modal Quality." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[page needed]ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  6. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Is Mode Real? Pietro Aron, the Octenary System, and Polyphony", Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis 16 (1992): 9–52.
  7. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Mode, III: Modal Theories and Polyphonic Music, 3: Polyphonic Modal Theory and the Eightfold System, (ii) Composite Modes," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[page needed]ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  8. Jump up^ Harold S. Powers, "Aeolian (i)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001)[page needed]ISBN 0-333-60800-3ISBN 1-56159-239-0ISBN 978-0-333-60800-5ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5ISBN 0-19-517067-9 (set); ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (set).
  9. Jump up to:a b Gary Ewer, "Dorian Mode, Aeolian Mode, Minor Key... What’s the Difference?", The Essential Secrets of Songwriting Blog (accessed 14 December 2014).[unreliable source?]

External links[edit]


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolian_mode

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